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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 68-74

Obesity among adult Nigerians: Relationship with blood pressure, blood sugar, and proteinuria

1 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Babawale Taslim Bello
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12005, Idi-Araba, Lagos
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2347-2618.197701

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Introduction Majority of data on the association between obesity and increased cardiovascular risk are from studies conducted in western countries with majority of studies being from Nigeria focusing on prevalence in selected populations. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity and blood pressure (BP), blood sugar, and proteinuria. Materials and Methods This was a community-based, cross-sectional study of 526 adults aged 18 years and older in three local government areas in Lagos. Obesity was assessed using the body mass index (BMI). BP, blood glucose (BG), and presence of proteinuria were determined. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, elevated blood pressure (EBP) as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, elevated blood glucose (EBG) as a random blood glucose (RBG) ≥ 200 mg/dL, and proteinuria as ≥2+ proteinuria on urinalysis (≥100 mg/dL). Results The mean age of the study population was 39.2 ± 15.1 years (range 18–83 years) with 51.9% being females. Overall, 116 (22.1%) were obese. The frequency of obesity increased with age and was significantly higher in females (28.9% vs 14.6%; P < 0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between BMI and SBP, DBP, and BG (r = 0.316, P < 0.001; r = 0.316, P < 0.001; and r = 0.245, P < 0.001, respectively). Compared to non-obese individuals, obese individuals in the study were older, more likely to be female, and had eight-fold odds of having EBG and four-fold odds of having proteinuria. Conclusion Obesity is common among adult Nigerians residing in Lagos. Its prevalence is higher in females and increases with age. It is associated with an increased risk of having EBG and proteinuria.

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