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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 29-34

Central obesity among adult Saudi males in Riyadh city: Prevalence, risk factors, and associated morbidities

1 King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, KSA
2 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, KSA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohammed Alsheef
King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sjo.sjo_11_17

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Background Obesity is increasing in the Saudi population with a prevalence of 35.5%. Data on the prevalence and risk factors of central obesity are lacking. Numerous studies demonstrate that mortality is higher among individuals with central obesity compared to a generalized pattern. Central obesity is considered as the cornerstone for metabolic syndrome and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and associated morbidities of central obesity among adult Saudi males attending primary healthcare centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study collected data from seven healthcare sectors in Riyadh city from May to August 2015. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used; data were collected from 269 male adults attending nine PHCCs. The questionnaire enquired about demographic information, tobacco use, dietary habits, physical activity, a history of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus, family history, and anthropometric measurements. Central obesity was defined as waist-to-height ratio >0.5, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) >0.90, and waist circumference (WC) >102 cm. Data entry and analysis were managed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 software (SPSS). Results Based on body mass index (BMI), this study revealed that 37.9% of the participants were overweight or obese (32.7%). The prevalence of central obesity was 42.4%. Diabetes mellitus, HTN, and coronary heart disease were found among 36.1, 26.0, and 8.2% of the participants, respectively. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that T2DM [odds ratio (OR) 2.48], a family history of obesity (OR 2.79), a family history of T2DM (OR 1.80), current smoking (OR 5.78), ever smoking (OR 5.15), physical inactivity (OR 4.85), drinking energy beverages (OR 0.45), consuming more fried food (OR 2.20), and consuming fast food (OR 3.03) were significantly associated with central obesity. Conclusion The prevalence of central obesity when determined using WC was higher when compared to its prevalence determined using BMI. WC is recommended to be included as another important tool to assess for obesity and predict for other risk factors of cardiovascular diseases for patients attending PHCCs. Health education programs should be adopted to increase awareness about the risks of central obesity and encourage a healthy diet and active lifestyle. Further studies need to be performed with a larger sample size and in different regions of Saudi Arabia.

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