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   2013| July-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 12, 2014

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Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A complex association
Abdulkareem Jassem Al-Quwaidhi, Mark S Pearce, Julia A Critchley, Martin O'Flaherty
July-December 2013, 1(2):49-56
Obesity is a growing epidemic affecting all ages in both industrialized and developing countries. The most common suggested cause of this epidemic is the increasing levels of urbanization and lifestyle changes toward sedentary life and adopting "western" dietary patterns. The association between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reproducibly observed in cross-sectional and prospective studies across various populations, even when using different fatness measures and diagnostic criteria for T2DM. However, there are some modifying factors that make such an association complex and multifactorial. These modifying factors include the duration of obesity, body fat distribution, physical activity, diet, and genetics/ethnicity. This review aims to summarize the evidence of this association and its potential modifying factors.
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Should schools be responsible for childhood obesity prevention?
Mostafa Abolfotouh
July-December 2013, 1(2):47-47
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Association between obesity and periodontal disease: A cross-sectional study
Amandeep Chopra, Manav Lakhanpal, Nidhi Gupta, NC Rao, Shelja Vashisth
July-December 2013, 1(2):71-75
Aim: To study the effect of obesity on periodontal health among patients visiting Outpatient Department of Public Health Dentistry. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 subjects aged 20 years and above who visited Outpatient Department of Public Heath Dentistry, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, were included. Periodontal status of the subjects was recorded. Body mass index was used as measure to assess obesity. Variables like age, gender, smoking and frequency of cleaning, which could act as covariants for the periodontal disease were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Frequency distribution for the determination of prevalence of a number of variables, cross tabulations and Chi square tests were used to find out the significance of differences. Further, multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. Results: The periodontal disease shows significant association with age, gender, OHIS, smoking and obesity (P < 0.05). Multivariate regression after adjusting for age, gender, OHIS and smoking showed that obese individuals were at 1.26 times (95% confidence interval 1.02-2.78) at risk for developing periodontal diseases when compared to non-obese individuals. Conclusion: The findings of present study showed significant association between obesity and periodontal disease.
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Obesity among patients attending primary care centers, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia
Safar A Al-Saleem, Abdullah M Alshahrani, Yahia M Al-Khaldi
July-December 2013, 1(2):67-70
Background: Obesity is one of the most chronic problems which is associated with many serious health problems such as hypertension, diabetes, and heart diseases. Objective: To estimate the magnitude of overweight and obesity among adults attending Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Aseer region, KSA. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during December 2012 at all PHCCs in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A data collecting sheet was designed by the investigators to achieve the objective of the study. It contained age, sex, weight, height, history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and watching TV. Doctors and nurses at PHCCs were instructed regarding using of data collecting sheet. Result: A total of 6 917 adult individuals were assessed during the week of this study. Mean age of participants was 48 years; both genders were equal. Prevalence rates of smoking, diabetes, and hypertension were 6%, 17%, And 12%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 32% and 39%, respectively. Obesity among males and females were 28% and 44%, respectively. Most of patients with hypertension and diabetes were overweight or obese. Conclusion: This survey revealed that prevalence of overweight and obesity are high among adults attending PHCC in Aseer region. Urgent action including health education, health promotion, and treating the affected individuals are mandatory to reduce the magnitude and consequences of this health problem.
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President's word
Waleed S Abu-Melha
July-December 2013, 1(2):48-48
  3,065 2,031 -
Obesity and gastrointestinal quality of life: A hospital-based survey
Tonguc Utku Yilmaz
July-December 2013, 1(2):57-61
Objective: We tried to find whether obesity worsens gastrointestinal (GI) quality of life score among patients with GI symptoms. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed in general surgery outpatient clinic in a slum part of a city. Body mass index (BMI) of the patients was measured. The patients with GI symptoms were included. The demographic data obtained. GI quality of life score questionnaires were performed. Results : The prevalence of being overweight and obesity were 32.4% and 40.1% respectively. There 442 patients with GI symptoms among 1250 outpatient admissions. The mean age, BMI and GI quality of life index scores of the patients were 46.3 (18-87), 31.1 (18.8-44.4) and 89.9 (63-121) respectively. The percentage of obese and overweight patients was significantly higher than the percentage of patients with normal weight. The quality of life decreased significantly in overweight and obese patients when compared with normal weight patients. Conclusion : The prevalence of obesity among females and older age was higher. Obesity is worsening the GI quality of life.
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Weight status among young males in Upper Egypt
Sameh Zaytoun, Mohammed Al-Ateeq, Hesham Ayoub, Mohamed Alsenbesy, Hanan Nomeir
July-December 2013, 1(2):62-66
Background: Obesity is a common health problem, with increasing prevalence world-wide. The metabolic changes of obesity can induce serious health problems and increase the risk for many diseases. Aim of the Work: The aim of this study to determine the body weight disorders, socio-demographic profile and associated medical conditions among young male adults in the Upper Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Qena University Hospital from 1 st August 2011 to 31 st August 2012, with a total number of 500 male subjects ranging from 18 to 30 years old. All individuals participating in the study were submitted to the followings: Filling a predesigned data collection sheet including: Demographic and socioeconomic data, family history of obesity, full clinical examination and laboratory investigations: Fasting glucose level for all participants and post-prandial serum glucose level for subjects with history of diabetes mellitus (DM) or have a risk factor of DM. Results: About 6% of subjects found to be obese with body mass index above 30. Middle social class was found to comprise most individuals with normal weight (69.6%). On the other hand, more than half of the underweights (57.9%) and 41.9% of obese subjects were from low social class. Most of youth of high social class were either normal (46.7%) or over weight and none of them were underweight (P < 0.001). About 3% and 6.5% of obese persons were found to be diabetics and hypertensive respectively. There was a significant association between obesity and the presence of family history of obesity (P = 0.012). Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity was similar among young males from different places in the Upper Egypt with being more prevalent among low social classes.
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Management of obesity: Summary of recommendations

July-December 2013, 1(2):76-77
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